The US Department of Justice accused Fujian Jinhua Integrated Circuit and Taiwan's United Microelectronics of the theft, in an indictment issued on Thursday.
The US also launched a court case to prevent the two companies from exporting to the US any products made using the allegedly stolen trade secrets.
US attorney-general Jeff Sessions said: "Chinese economic espionage against the United States has been increasing, and it has been increasing rapidly.
The secrets in question related to dynamic random access memory chips, the production of which is dominated by Micron and two South Korean firms, Samsung and SK Hynix.
Sessions said: “Micron is worth an estimated US$100 billion and has a 20% to 25% share of the dynamic random access memory industry – a technology not possessed by the Chinese until very recently."
The three defendants were named as Taiwan nationals Chen Zhengkun, He Jianting, and Wang Yungming.
The indictment charged the defendants with being engaged in a conspiracy to steal the trade secrets of Micron Technology.
It claims Micron maintains a significant competitive advantage in this field due in large part from its intellectual property, including its trade secrets that include detailed, confidential information pertaining to the design, development, and manufacturing of advanced DRAM products.