More than four years ago, the Stuxnet worm was not only discovered, it was discovered to be ‘one of the most sophisticated and dangerous malicious programs’, it was also considered to be ‘the world’s first cyber-weapon’.
There have been many mysteries around the story, but one major question revolves around what the exact goals of the whole Stuxnet operation were.
Kaspersky Lab has analysed more than 2,000 Stuxnet files over the last two–years, with its researchers now able to identify the first victims of the worm.
Initially, Kaspersky’s and other security researchers had no doubt that the whole attack had a targeted nature.
The company says that the code of the Stuxnet worm looked professional and exclusive, with evidence that extremely expensive zero-day vulnerabilities were used.
Even so, it wasn’t yet known what kinds of organisations were attacked first, nor how the malware ultimately made it right through to the uranium enrichment centrifuges of top secret facilities.
Kaspersky’s new analysis sheds light on these questions.
The fifth organisation to be targeted, explains Kaspersky, is the most intriguing because, ‘among other products for industrial automation, it produces uranium enrichment centrifuges’, with this ‘precisely the kind of equipment that is believed to be the main target of Stuxnet.’
The company say that ‘It is believed the attackers expected that these organisations would exchange data with their clients – such as uranium enrichment facilities – and this would make it possible to get the malware inside these target facilities. The outcome suggests that the plan was indeed successful.’
Kaspersky Lab experts made yet another interesting discovery: ‘revealing that the Stuxnet worm did not only spread via infected USB memory sticks plugged into PCs. This factor shaped part of the initial theory, explaining how the malware could sneak into a place with no direct Internet connection.’
Its security researched saw that the ‘data gathered while analysing the very first attack showed that the first worm’s sample (Stuxnet.a) was compiled just hours before it appeared on a PC in the first attacked organisation.’
Interestingly, ‘this tight timetable makes it hard to imagine that an attacker compiled the sample, put it on a USB memory stick and delivered it to the target organisation in just a few hours. It is reasonable to assume that in this particular case, the people behind Stuxnet used other techniques instead of a USB infection.’
Alexander Gostev, Chief Security Expert at Kaspersky Lab said: “Analysing the professional activities of the first organisations to fall victim to Stuxnet gives us a better understanding of how the whole operation was planned.”
“At the end of the day, this is an example of a supply-chain attack vector, where the malware is delivered to the target organisation indirectly via networks of partners that the target organisation may work with,” Gostev concluded.
You can read plenty more technical detail on various ‘previously unknown aspects of the Stuxnet attack’ in a blog post on Kaspersky Lab’s Securelist site.
There is also a newly released book entitled ‘Countdown to Zero Day’ – by journalist Kim Zetter.
This book also includes previously undisclosed information about Stuxnet, some of which is based on interviews with members of Kaspersky Lab’s Global Research and Analysis Team who are helping to unravel the Stuxnet mystery.