"It is essential to remain at the technological cutting edge and for this reason we have chosen Microsoft to lead this commitment to the future," said Real Madrid president Florentino Pérez.
The Surface Pro 3 will be used by players and coaching staff to help gain insights about on-pitch performances.
Real Madrid will help Microsoft learn more about the sports industry, and there may be joint research projects between the club and Microsoft Research.
Microsoft's cloud-based systems will allow the club's 400 million supporters to access content and services whether they are in the Santiago Bernabéu stadium or on the other side of the world.
“In every country, on every continent, there will always be millions of Madridistas connected by a feeling that knows no borders, and we will be there with you," said Pérez.
During the announcement of the relationship, Microsoft demonstrated how supporters will be able to apply the company's big data, visualisation and analytics tools to data sets about the club, for instance to compare players.
"We’re excited to be helping Real Madrid transform their business with Microsoft services and devices, such as how Surface Pro 3 will be used by players and coaching staff as key work tools," said Microsoft corporate vice president and chairman, emerging markets Orlando Ayala.
"But above all, the digital platform we’re designing with Real Madrid is maniacally focused on putting fans at the center, and opening access and control of rich content and experiences that bring them closer to their passion for the game and the team."
Microsoft already has partnerships with Italian football club AC Milan, the Lotus Formula 1 team, and the US National Football League.