The network, planned by Vodafone Germany, Nokia and Audi, will allow high-definition streaming from the moon.
News of the plan comes a little more than a year short of the date when the first astronauts landed on the moon.
A statement said Vodafone’s network expertise would be used to set up the Moon’s first 4G network, connecting two Audi lunar quattro rovers to a base station in the Autonomous Landing and Navigation Module.
The two companies are working with Berlin's PTScientists and looking for a launch in 2019 from Cape Canaveral on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket.
Vodafone Germany chief executive Dr Hannes Ametsreiter said: “This project involves a radically innovative approach to the development of mobile network infrastructure.
"It is also a great example of an independent, multi-skilled team achieving an objective of immense significance through their courage, pioneering spirit and inventiveness.”
Robert Böhme, chief executive and founder of PTScientists, said: “This is a crucial first step for sustainable exploration of the solar system. In order for humanity to leave the cradle of Earth, we need to develop infrastructures beyond our home planet.
"With Mission to the Moon we will establish and test the first elements of a dedicated communications network on the Moon. The great thing about this LTE solution is that it saves so much power, and the less energy we use sending data, the more we have to do science!”
Nokia chief technology officer and Bell Labs president Marcus Weldon said: “We are very pleased to have been selected by Vodafone to be their technology partner.
"This important mission is supporting, among other things, the development of new space-grade technologies for future data networking, processing and storage, and will help advance the communications infrastructure required for academics, industry and educational institutions in conducting lunar research.
"These aims have potentially wide-ranging implications for many stakeholders and humanity as a whole, and we look forward to working closely with Vodafone and the other partners in the coming months, prior to the launch in 2019.”