United States: ESSA-1
The 138-kilogram (305-pound) satellite had 9,100 solar cells, which provided power to sixty-three batteries.
Two cameras provided photographs of all parts of Earth at a certain time each day, thus allowing meteorologists to better predict weather here on Earth by studying cloud cover over the surface of Earth.
Before the ESSA-1 satellite was launched the U.S. Environmental Science Services Administration (ESSA) was created in 1965 in order to coordinate the weather and climate operations for the United States.
It later became the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in 1970.
ESSA-1 was launched first, with eight other satellites(ESSA-2 through -9) being launched through to 1969.
Additional information about the ESSA program is found on the NASA website ESSA.
The website states, “Over a period of almost 4 years, ESSA satellites transmitted thousands of images back to Earth, enabling ground stations to predict weather patterns, including hurricanes. Advances in technology allowed ESSA to more than double the amount of information gathered over the life of the program. When ESSA-6, was deactivated by NASA, its images were reaching more than 300 receiving stations around the world, in 45 countries.”