The researchers looked for signs of AMD within the photographs. Thereafter, they performed logistical regression statistical tests to find out if smoking and drinking affected women’s risk of developing AMD.
The majority of subjects were Caucasian. In those women, the rate of AMD ranged from 21.9% for those women 74 to 79 years (for early AMD incidence) and 33.2% for those 80 to 84 years. A slightly lower rate of 29.0% was observed in women over 85 years.
Specifically, there was an increased risk of early AMD incidence among the women (aged 80 years or older) who were smokers when compared to those aged younger than 80 years and who were not smokers.
Overall, the smokers had a 11% higher rate of AMD than the non-smokers of the same age.
However, among the women over 80 years of age, the smokers were 5.5 times more likely to develop AMD than the non-smokers.
In addition, alcohol consumption also significantly was associated with an elevated risk of early AMD incidence.
Page three concludes.