Now, on to phase 2.
In phase 2, the rematerialized Universe consists of matter and antimatter that annihilate each other. Again, the end of the phase is a forbidden, purely radiative Universe. This time, global energy conservation forces the appearance of the familiar electromagnetic force (one of the four forces of nature'”described by spinor QED), whose sole purpose is to transform photons (massless radiation) into electron-positron pairs (matter).
In phase 3, the electron-positron pairs (or electron pairs for short'”the positron is a positively charged electron) annihilate each other until only two pairs remain in a sea of almost three billion background photons. (More precisely, the computer simulation predicts the number of photons to be about 2 786 275 000.)
To inhibit the last electron pairs from annihilating each other, the strong force (another one of the forces'”described by quantum chromodynamics, or QCD) appears. Its purpose is to ensure continuous presence of matter in the Universe by transforming the last annihilating electron pair into a new type of matter'”a proton-antiproton pair (or proton pair for short).
In phase 4, the energy needed to transform the lightweight electron pair into a heavyweight proton pair has to be taken from the only existing energy source'”the background photons. Therefore, the strong force is accompanied by a weak force (the third force of nature), whose purpose is to provide a link between the electromagnetic force and the strong force, and to transfer energy from the photon radiation to the proton pair.
Finally, to inhibit proton-antiproton (p-pâˆ’) annihilation, global energy conservation forces the antiproton (pâˆ’) to decay back into an electron (eâˆ’), thus releasing a large amount of energy. This is the 'Big Bang' that heats the now stable matter (the proton-electron pair) to an initial temperature a thousand times higher than in the blast of a hydrogen bomb.
The table shows the three matter-creating forces that, in turn, saved the early Universe from decaying into pure radiation'”a state forbidden by the law of conservation of energy. Today, only the latter two forces exist.
And, today's spinning tauon and muon remind us of the spinless tauon and muon that disappeared'”at about 10 and 33 natural time units old, respectively'”when the Universe was still very young.
The fine-structure constant Î± (with measured value 1/137.035 9991) characterizes the electromagnetic force.
The charged pion (Ï€+ with antiparticle Ï€âˆ’) is a short-lived, strongly interacting particle'”a kind of 'spinless proton.' The reason for including the pion pair in the table is that the creation of the proton pair proceeded via an intermediate, very brief, 'pion phase.' Thus, the value of the pion-electron mass ratio (mÏ€/me) provides vital information about the process in which the proton was initially formed.
The tauon-muon mass ratio (mÏ„/mÎ¼) and muon-electron mass ratio (mÎ¼/me) tell us how much energy the last spinless tauon and muon had taken up from radiation at the end of phase 1 and phase 2, respectively.
The table gives the measured values of the constants with the last digit of each value unreliable. The constants should in theory be calculable from first principles'”a challenge for theoretical physicists! A failed attempt to calculate the fine-structure constant Î± is presented in the form of a very simple computer program with its source code listed on pages 64-65 in the paper.
Also, the ratio mÎ¼/me hasn't yet been calculated from first principles. Instead, its theoretical value discussed below is obtained from the measured value of Î±, to which it is directly related.
Page 8 continues with more on the muon-electron mass ratio.